Las sanciones como instrumento de política exterior en temas de seguridad nacional, narcotráfico y libertad religiosa: el caso de Estados Unidos

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Rosalva A. Ruiz Paniagua


This article presents an analysis of sanctions as an instrument of foreign policy and national security by the United States government. It is divided into five parts. In the first, Ruiz Paniagua describes how, over the years, the United States has used sanctions to pressure or punish countries that, from its point of view, violate American values or interests. In this respect it highlights how this policy has been revalued due to the end of the Cold War. In the second part, the author analyzes the debate that the punitive policy has created within government and academic circles, and that has to do with definition, frequency, diversity, effectiveness, costs, objectives and alternative options. In the third part, she explains the popularity of sanctions as a result of struggles between the executive and the legislative branches for control of foreign policy. These struggles in turn are a product of the division of powers in the American political system. The fourth part presents the case study of enforcement of the 1986 anti-drug law and the certification process that arises from it. For example, it expounds on the case oí Mexico in the last three years. The fifth part analyzes the religious liberty law, which penalizes countries where religious persecution occurs. According to the author, the sanctions debate inside the United States legislative branch leans toward restricting the use of sanctions as an instrument of foreign policy and toward penalization of individuals or companies instead of countries.

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Cómo citar
Ruiz Paniagua, Rosalva A. 2022. «Las Sanciones Como Instrumento De política Exterior En Temas De Seguridad Nacional, narcotráfico Y Libertad Religiosa: El Caso De Estados Unidos». Revista Mexicana De Política Exterior, n.º 59 (marzo):174-206.