Contenido principal del artículo
The essay analyzes the main advances related to protection of Mexicans living abroad, mainly those who live in the United States, during the 1994-2000 administration. Miguel Ángel González and Jorge Cicero underline the difficult context in which these actions took place: for Mexico, the migratory phenomenon has a fundamentally human, economic and social dimension; on the other side, in the United States, the predominating view of undocumented immigration is that of a threat to national security, which explains the existence of very strict, and sometimes openly anti-immigrant legislation. The paper is divided into four sections: the first refers to actions promoted inside the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE) to reinforce its ability to protect Mexicans living abroad. This is the origin of the increased number of consular offices and the creation of the SRE’s Protection Policies Desk. Furthermore, the SRE’s International Disputes Desk was kept, and the old figure of the “chancellors of protection” was resumed. The second section has to do with binational protective actions. A binational migration study was done in this area; a series of border agreements were signed to provide guidance and protection, and it was resolved to establish a mechanism for exchange of information for the fight against criminal organizations engaged in the traffic of human beings. The authorities have intensified the closeness of their ties to each other in addressing migration in two areas: control of undocumented immigration and flexibility of immigration laws. The third section deals with the rights of Mexicans in the American courts and the support that the SRE provides to migrants in the form of consular guidance related to their legal rights and putting them in touch with lawyers’ bars and legal groups willing to defend them. The last section relates to protective actions by Mexico in the international forums and processes such as the InterAmerican Human Rights Court and other international human rights organizations. Lastly, the authors propose that the protection of Mexicans living abroad be made a constitutional principle of Mexico’s foreign policy so as to guarantee its continuity as well as greater attraction of human and financial resources.